debate

¿Qué debaten los que debaten?

Vladimir Ramírez

El liderazgo significa inspirarnos para superar nuestros temores. La demagogia significa explotar nuestros miedos con fines políticos.

Al Gore

¿En qué se han convertido los debates en las últimas elecciones en México? ¿Cuál es la finalidad de reunir a los aspirantes a un cargo de elección popular en mismo foro? El antecedente inmediato y más conocido sobre debates políticos lo tenemos en los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica, en aquel primer debate televisado entre los candidatos presidenciales Richard Nixon y John F. Kennedy en 1960. Gana la elección el candidato de los demócratas Kennedy.

Un año después el 27 de junio, en la Ciudad de México, el panista Tomás Carmona y el priista Antonio Vargas McDonald, candidatos a diputados federales, debatieron en el programa “Mesa de celebridades” de Agustín Barrios Gómez, del Canal 2 de Televicentro, hoy Televisa.

La historia registra un inesperado triunfo para el candidato de acción nacional, demostrando la importante influencia que tienen los debates para mediar en las decisiones de las y los electores. Con la experiencia desfavorable, el PRI resuelve no participar más ellos.

Fue hasta 1994 cuando de nueva cuenta el PRI decide participar en el primer debate entre candidatos a la presidencia de la república con Ernesto Zedillo, Diego Fernández del PAN y Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas del PRD. Para este evento se excluyó al resto de los aspirantes: Cecilia Soto del PT, Jorge González Torres del Verde Ecologista de México, Rafael Aguilar Talamantes del Frente Cardenista de Reconstrucción Nacional, Álvaro Pérez Treviño del Partido Auténtico de la Revolución Mexicana, Marcela Lombardo Otero del Partido Popular Socialista y Pablo Emilio Madero  del Partido Demócrata Mexicano.

Después de esta elección los debates han estado presentes en casi todos los procesos electorales, tanto federales como locales. En estos eventos, suelen ocurrir modificaciones que marcan experiencias y aprendizajes,  una gran cantidad de críticas a los formatos y sobre todo observaciones sobre el comportamiento de las y los participantes.

Se distinguen aspectos como las descalificaciones a ultranza, la falta de argumentos, las argucias para desprestigiar públicamente al contrincante, la ausencia de propuestas viables y concretas, la exageración de promesas como demagogia, el vituperio como atractivo principal, la exclusión de candidatos y en el peor de los casos la negativa de participar cuando se considera que sería una mala táctica en su estrategia electoral.

Después de 21 años del primer debate presidencial entre los tres principales partidos, esta práctica electoral se ha modificado en muchos aspectos, sobre todo de logística y alcance tecnológico, destacando las facilidades que en la actualidad representan el internet y los medios digitales.

Sin embargo, los formatos y la tecnología no han podido alcanzar las expectativas, que el electorado durante todos estos años se ha formado, de presenciar un debate entre candidatos y candidatas a la altura de sus aspiraciones. Los debates organizados por diferentes organismos e instituciones educativas han participado más bien con voluntad de facilitar espacio y  logística,  lo que no se ha logrado traducir en un mayor nivel de debate entre las y los aspirantes.

Para el caso de candidaturas a diputaciones federales, como en Sinaloa y otras entidades, se ofrece un formato tradicional en el que se evidencia la poca preparación de las y los participantes y una muy limitada capacidad para responder a los actuales retos del poder legislativo; carente de la visión que se requiere para alinear los intereses del distrito que representa, con los de su entidad y en relación con la realidad del país.

La complejidad de los grandes temas nacionales y la repercusión de éstos en la vida de sus posibles representados, exige candidatos con una mayor preparación, aspirantes con cualidades para debatir, argumentar y decidir asuntos realmente complejos;   liderazgos que se conduzcan con honestidad y un genuino compromiso con lo que plantean.

Quizá ayudaría si se modifica el formato para involucrar la participación de la ciudadanía de manera más activa y no sólo como espectador. Sortear la intervención en los debates de uno a dos ciudadanos interesados, haría de estos ejercicios electorales, espacios más democráticos. Un debate abierto a la participación de la ciudadanía, podría marcar la diferencia.

Fuera de los grandes temas que ocupan tradicionalmente a estos eventos públicos entre candidatos, están también las asignaturas pendientes como la obligación de rendir cuentas de sus actos y explicar los criterios que motivan sus decisiones para aprobar o desaprobara leyes, presupuestos y modificaciones constitucionales, sobre todo exponer sus repercusiones o beneficios.

Asumir la exigencia para que se decida de acuerdo a la voluntad del electorado en cada distrito y no al interior de los partidos y grupos parlamentarios es otro de los reclamos más sentidos. Terminar también con la práctica clientelar de la gestión como chantaje para no tomar en cuenta a las y los ciudadanos. Y por supuesto, los ignorados hasta ahora, métodos de consulta, son la gran factura que se adeuda para hacer del poder legislativo una verdadera representación de las mayorías.

 

vraldapa@hotmail.com

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