democracia-770x375

Artículo 3: Resultado democrático después de la reforma

Yadira Villegas

El proceso electoral 2014-2015 en México es inédito por muchas razones: nuevas reglas electorales, un padrón electoral histórico de más de 87 millones de ciudadanos –52% mujeres y 48% hombres–, y el número de elecciones simultáneas –32 elecciones de diputados federales al mismo tiempo que la renovación de cargos a gobernadores, congresos locales y ayuntamientos de 17 entidades federativas.

Por primera vez participaron 10 partidos diferentes en las elecciones federales con nuevas reglas basadas principalmente en 6 ejes: régimen de gobierno, autoridades electorales, régimen de partidos políticos y candidaturas independientes, fiscalización y rebase de tope de gastos de campaña, comunicación política e instrumentación de la participación ciudadana. Es decir, se podían registrar candidatos independientes a todos los cargos y los partidos tenían la obligación de postular el mismo número de candidatos hombres y mujeres para cargos de diputados federales y locales.

El Instituto Nacional Electoral (INE) operó con una compleja administración el modelo de comunicación que inundó los espacios de radio y televisión. Entre partidos, coaliciones, candidatos independientes y autoridades electorales se emitieron casi 41 millones de spots de octubre de 2014 al 4 de junio de 2015, participaron 2,311 emisoras de televisión y 1,579 estaciones de radio en la aplicación de las pautas diseñadas por el órgano electoral.

Por otra parte, la fiscalización representó un reto titánico para el instituto,  siendo ahora una causal de nulidad de la elección rebasar el tope de gastos de campaña, siempre y cuando la diferencia de votos entre el primer y segundo lugar sea menor al 5%.

No solo estos factores hicieron un proceso electoral inquietante, sumemos también la preocupación por el malestar expansivo de ciudadanos, partidos, congresos, gobernantes y políticos,  así como las amenazas de sabotear de forma violenta la jornada electoral como sucedió en algunas regiones del país.

 

Resultados electorales federales

El 40% es el promedio de participación ciudadana en las tres últimas elecciones de diputaciones federales: 2015 del 43.82%, 2009 del 44.9% y 2003 del 41.68%. Estadísticamente, cuando no hay elecciones a presidente de la república los ciudadanos muestran menor interés en salir a votar.

El análisis más relevante puede ser  el alto índice de abstencionismo. Más del 56% es un porcentaje muy alto de ciudadanos que no se encuentran motivados para participar y que parecen expresar un llamado de atención a partidos y gobernantes. Las causas pueden ser muchas: desinterés, hartazgo, dar la espalda a la política, sumado el 4.7% de votos nulos, que se requiere de un porcentaje más alto para registrarse como partido o candidato independiente, etcétera.

Los resultados de la votación se dispersaron entre 10 partidos políticos y candidatos independientes, los partidos pequeños lograron disminuir los votos que tradicionalmente obtenían las tres primeras fuerzas electorales PAN, PRI y PRD, otro dato interesante son las candidaturas independientes, que influyeron también en dicha dispersión. Además, con los resultados está en riesgo el registro de dos partidos políticos el PT y el Humanista, el primero, de larga trayectoria en los comicios electorales de México, y el segundo, recién creado en esta elección federal.

Más detalladamente, los resultados electorales preliminares publicados por el INE: El pasado 7 de junio más de 36 millones de mexicanos salieron a votar. Se renovaron dos mil 179 cargos de elección popular; 500 diputaciones federales –300 de mayoría relativa y 200 de representación proporcional–, 9 gubernaturas, 641 diputaciones locales, 993 ayuntamientos, 16 jefaturas delegacionales  y 20 juntas municipales.

Resultados de las elecciones federales 2014-2015:

Partido                        Porcentaje                  Cargos (MR)     Cargos (RP*)

PAN                              20.89                               56                   53

PRI                               29.10                                25                   47

PRD                                       10.83                                           5                  28

PVEM                          07.06                                           0                   18

PT                                 02.87                                           0                     0

Mov. Ciudadano                  05.99                                         11                    16

Nueva Alianza             03.74                                           1                      9

Morena                        08.37                                        14

Humanista                            02.14                                           0

Encuentro Social                  03.30                                           0

Coalición PRI y PVEM                                                158

(*Las candidaturas de RP pendientes de asignar se debe a que no concluye el proceso en los distritos correspondientes)

 

Por su parte, los candidatos independientes lograron el 00.57% de la votación en los estados de Chihuahua, Distrito Federal, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Puebla, Quintana Roo, Sinaloa, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala y Veracruz.

Para cerrar, con respecto a la Paridad de Género en este proceso electoral, es importante mencionar que se presentaron obstáculos en tres momentos durante el desarrollo del proceso, al manifestarse las mujeres como aspirantes, en la reinterpretación de la ley y el incumplimiento de criterios.

Pese a ello, los resultados son alentadores e inéditos, se rompió récord en el número de candidatas postuladas y mujeres electas, se armonizó en los estados en sus respectivas leyes electorales la paridad, de igual forma el Tribunal Electoral del Poder Judicial de la Federación (TEPJF) estableció criterios para promover, respetar, proteger y garantizar el derecho a la igualdad en el acceso a cargos.

Hoy por hoy, el hecho histórico para Sinaloa es que durante la armonización de la ley electoral recientemente aprobada, reconoce e incorpora como principio rector de la función electoral, la paridad de género.

 

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