Sinaloa agenda economica2

Sinaloa: la agenda económica

Num 16| Una agenda para Sinaloa

Ronaldo González Valdés

Los años que se avecinan se anuncian difíciles por diferentes razones: desde las que tienen que ver con la economía internacional (caída de los precios del petróleo y Brexit incluidos) hasta la cada vez mayor pérdida de confianza de la ciudadanía en relación con las autoridades, con la política, las capacidades de gobierno y, lo que es más grave, con las capacidades de la sociedad misma. Como lo hice recientemente con el caso de la educación, apunto enseguida una serie de consideraciones y planteamientos que pueden contribuir a la elaboración y puesta en marcha de un Gran Acuerdo por la Economía Sinaloense. No sobra decir que todos ellos se desprenden de las discusiones realizadas por el equipo de Aldea 21, y muy particularmente con los compañeros Roberto Airola y Vladimir Ramírez, para la realización de las mesas temáticas que pronto organizaremos en torno a los temas estratégicos que pueden dar lugar a una Agenda por Sinaloa.

I.1. La situación actual.

  • Hoy en día todos estamos de acuerdo en que el modelo de desarrollo que ha seguido Sinaloa en los últimos tiempos, es insuficiente para generar el valor y la riqueza que demanda nuestra sociedad.
  • Según BANAMEX, en los últimos tres años Sinaloa ha tenido un promedio de crecimiento de 1.1%, muy por debajo del 3% nacional (de por sí bajo).
  • Es bien sabida nuestra excesiva dependencia del sector primario. Por diversas razones (precios internacionales de los granos, afectaciones climáticas, sequías, heladas, inundaciones, etcétera), el sector primario y agroindustrial ha permanecido estancado a precios constantes, impactando negativamente al resto de los sectores.
  • La pesca padece una sobreexplotación, desorden regulatorio y embestidas ambientales de proporciones preocupantes.
  • La minería ha atraído inversión en los últimos años, pero está pendiente el análisis de su impacto social, económico y ambiental, para saber si efectivamente puede representar una opción de bienestar para los habitantes de las comunidades serranas.
  • En el estudio “La competitividad de los estados 2012” realizado por el ITESM, se consigna que el año 2010, Sinaloa ocupaba el lugar 14 en competitividad, ubicándose en el sitio 19 en 2012.
  • En el mismo documento se establece también que, en materia de desempeño económico, se pasó del lugar 9 en 2010, al 29 en 2012.
  • En infraestructura, en los mismos dos años, se descendió del lugar 9 a la posición 12.
  • Resultado de ello, los sinaloenses tenemos un PIB per capita hasta un 20% menor al PIB nacional (110 mil pesos contra 134 mil en el país).
  • Consecuencia de esto también, tanto la hacienda pública estatal como las haciendas municipales reflejan un creciente deterioro.

I.2. Áreas de oportunidad y propuestas

  • No vamos a inventar nada: nuestro primer gran acuerdo tiene que ver con la reconversión de la economía regional.
  • Tampoco es un secreto: necesitamos crear nuevas y más integradas cadenas productivas.
  • Definir un planteamiento que, considerando el fortalecimiento de nuestros sectores primarios, impulse lo referido al sector de las telecomunicaciones; los servicios financieros; los negocios verdes; las empresas que generen energías limpias y renovables; los negocios sustentados en la economía del conocimiento; las industrias creativas, aprovechando los desarrollos de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación y dotándolas de contenidos regionales; los sistemas de transporte multimodal y la logística, la ampliación y modernización de la infraestructura urbana.
  • El tema de la capacidad logística es fundamental. En esta ruta se inscribe la construcción del gasoducto que traerá energía barata a la entidad. Aprovechar la expectativa del gas natural significa tener una plataforma que estimule la inversión a través de la construcción de parques industriales, incentivos fiscales, capacitación de mano de obra y educación pertinente a las necesidades de las empresas, las nuevas tecnologías, modernización de los puertos, es decir, un Plan Integral de Atracción de Inversiones y Relanzamiento de la Infraestructura Estatal y sus Potencialidades.
  • Atraer industrias manufactureras mediante el diseño y aplicación de políticas integrales y de competencias regionales, ofreciendo ventajas de conectividad y bajos costos de instalación y operación de las empresas.
  • Dada la vocación agrícola del estado, se requiere un Plan Integral de Desarrollo Agroindustrial que considere el aprovechamiento de energías baratas y sustentables, más y mejor infraestructura industrial y de comunicación, promoción de los productos sinaloenses en el país y el extranjero.
  • Todo plan que aspire a reorientar y fortalecer la economía local debe considerar el tema ecológico. Detener el alto grado de degradación de nuestros suelos que afecta al entorno natural y a la propia producción agrícola, pesquera y ganadera; promover más áreas naturales protegidas para preservar la biodiversidad, alentando el respeto al medio ambiente, la inocuidad y la utilización de energías renovables.
  • Avanzar en definitiva en la culminación del sistema de riego de la presa Picachos, construir la presa Santa María y su infraestructura de distribución del agua, concluir el sistema de riego Elota-Piaxtla, así como aumentar nuestras capacidades de industrialización de maíz, de acopio y almacenamiento de granos, entre otras iniciativas.
  • Aquí es importante destacar que ya es tiempo de implementar un programa integral para el cuidado, buen uso y limpieza del agua, insumo fundamental de nuestra economía y vital para el desarrollo urbano.
  • En ocasiones la innovación parte de lo pequeño, como lo es el reciclar los desechos o industrializar la basura.
  • Empeñar todos los esfuerzos necesarios en la construcción de nuevos parques industriales; promover nuevos proyectos agroindustriales enfocados al procesamiento de materias primas agrícolas, pero también a los sectores pesquero, ganadero, minero y silvícola (es decir, el sector primario en su conjunto).
  • Alentar la organización económica de los productores, la creación de unidades productivas en las zonas más empobrecidas y su vinculación con los principales centros de consumo de la entidad, permitiendo a los productores rurales del sector social incorporarse a la economía de mercado y fomentando la consolidación de un mercado interno sólido.

 

I.3. Visión: la necesidad de un Gran Acuerdo

  • El tema de la economía pasa necesariamente por el acuerdo político y social de todos los actores involucrados: académicos, profesionistas, empresarios agrícolas, industriales y de servicios, organizaciones de trabajadores y el sector público.
  • Un proyecto compartido de mediano y largo plazo. Acabar con las improvisaciones y la atención preponderante a los dictados del interés político inmediato y coyuntural.
  • La nueva economía sinaloense supone un compromiso civilizatorio del conjunto de la sociedad.
  • Por eso, el planteamiento económico no puede tratarse por separado de la agenda estratégica de cambio en el ámbito político, de reforma del Estado, de una transformación profunda de la administración pública, su funcionamiento y resultados.
  • Como no puede abordarse por separado de un planteamiento muy articulado e integrado de una nueva política social en materia educativa, de salud, cultura, asistencia, desarrollo urbano, deporte, perspectiva de género y marginación, que promueva la mayor inclusión y equidad posibles.

Written by Jorge.Limon

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